What is a piston pump | EMILTEC

The piston pump is undoubtedly one of the most powerful pumping technologies available. It can also be utilized to process extremely viscous materials. In this blog, we discuss everything you need to know about piston pumps, including what they are, areas of applications, advantages, etc. Let’s get started!

What is a piston pump?

A piston pump, also called a reciprocating pump, is a type of positive displacement pump in which the piston reciprocates with the high-pressure seal.

They are typically used to compress gases or transfer liquids, achieving high-pressure activities without significantly affecting the flow rate. For this reason, they are frequently seen in water distribution or irrigation systems.

A steam engine, a turbine, an electric motor, a hydraulic system, or a driving mechanism can power piston pumps. They transfer lubricating fluid down the axis of machinery and can operate at various pressures up to 10,000 psi. The fluid is forced into the pump by the increasing pressure, and the piston action causes the fluid to pulse.

What are piston pumps used for?

Applications for piston and plunger pumps typically involve the need for a low liquid flow rate at high pressure, such as in the case of seawater passing through a filter for reverse osmosis or chemical injection in pressurized pipework where a high-pressure pump is needed to overcome the line pressure.

Piston pump designs are predictable for transferring liquids in batching and metering applications because they have positive displacement and a volume dispensed that is related to speed.

These designs can only be used with pure liquids free of solid or abrasive particles. Otherwise, they would shorten the life of internal seals, clog internal parts, prevent them from sealing, or cause abrasions that shorten the unit’s lifespan.

These designs can handle liquids, including fuels, chemicals, and seawater; however, they are not necessarily appropriate for applications requiring a self-priming pump and typically require flooded suction or a booster pump in high-flow units.

How efficient are piston pumps?

At 85–90% efficiency, piston pumps offer some of the highest efficiency levels on the market. They can be powered by motors directly or by guarded V belts, eliminating the need for a gearbox, which frequently increases transmission losses.

Advantages of piston pumps

Piston pumps have a vast, wide pressure range that allows them to achieve highly controllable pressures without affecting the flow rate. They are useful pieces of equipment with a lot of intelligence.

Because of their continual discharge rate, piston pumps can transfer viscous fluids, large volumes of gas, and even particles throughout machinery. Therefore, their main advantages are a piston pump’s efficiency, usefulness, and ability to transfer fluids through a machine regardless of viscosity.

They also have a lengthy performance life and will continue serving you well if properly maintained.

Since they have been around for a long time in several industries, piston pumps are a fantastic engineering achievement and essential to many enterprises. Their primary advantage is their operational utility, which frequently proves crucial when used.

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